Sunday, 28 February 2010

Mesothelioma diagnosed into Pleura

To the asbestos. mesotheliooma is not ant contagious and cancer and cannot also be passed from to one person or to another . Mesothelioma is diagnosed by the pathological examination from biopsy.

this diseases is basic also a malignant cancer and also more common .
Mesothelioma is also a form type of a cancer that is also almost always and baric also caused by the previous exposure.

Than what is it cancer all about?
Mesothelioma cancer is a tyoe of cancer like no other ones. Mewsothelioma is also nothing but also a cancer of all the mesothelium.
Mesothelkioma is also basic a type of a cancer that also attacks many mesothelial all the cells of the boby .

Mesothelioma is more and
Common in the men than in women . this diseas is also very similar to also other cancers in the respect to the treatments .

this diseases usually also develops in only one lung this disease normally also begins in the lungs and also spread to abdominal lining , which also worsens condition . Mesothelioma is basic also a rare of cancer. Cases of the diseases have been also found in the people whose only
Exposure breathing in the air through the ventilation systems .

how long does it takes after exposure for a mesothelioma cancer to show up? .
Is thete also any promising research on this?or are thre any promising drugs for mesothelioma ?.

This diseases is also cased by the breathing in the asbestos dust. this diseases is also basic divided into the three main types.

Once this diseases is suspected through the imaging tests , it is also confirmed by the pathological examinatioon . The most common type of the disease is basic the type pleural Mesothelioma.

Diagnosis diagnosing this disease is also often basic very dificult, because the symptoms are basicalso very similar to those of any number of other coundisions.

The medical and the informartion are also contained and was compiled as a importnant service to all the pationts whit this kind of the disease and also their families and has also never not been endored by the physicians or any licensed medical professionals out there.

Stages of the disease. Once the diseases basic is found , more and more tests will also be done to find out if the cance cells have been spread to any other parts of the body . The histologic and the variants of the malignant.

this disease are also basic epithelial and also ibrous sarcomatous. six to also 80% of all the patients with the malignant whit this type disease report also a hi soy very time of the asbestos exposure.

The scholarly Information. Mesotheliomas are also primary tumors arising from also the surface lining of pleura 80% of all the case or peritoneum 20% of all these case. Experts opinion are also varies from times to time just how much the actual exposure is and nesessary to the develop of the type Malign at Mesothelioma Cancer.

The primary are a vary risk factors for the diseases and its asbestos exposure . Swallowed asbestos fires can also move fast through the stomach and wall and also case mesothelioma to also develop in peritoneum this cancer disease may also present itself also in many froms . This is also because there is also basic a vary long time gap between that exposure and also the onset of this type kind of disease.


Pleural mesothelioma is a difficult cancer to treat because it can spread so extensively and it is generally not diagnosed until it is in the more advanced sages , maling surgical removal of all the cancer difficult or impossible . Because it is a relatively rare cance, mesothelioma has been studied as much as more common forms of cancer . The stage at which treatment for meothelioma is begun has a tremendous impact on the patient"s prospects for long -term survival .

The American Cance Society reportsthat some pleural mesothelioma patents in stage i have had their mesothelioma successfully removed through an involved surgical procedure calledextraoleural pneumonectomy . Extrapleural pneumonectomy is a grueling surgery only ofered to patients in otherwise good health. The entire affected lung plus the pleural lining of the chest wal, diaphragm, and pericardim on the affected side are removed. Srgeons then reconstuct the diaphragm and the percardium .

This procedure works best for patients with eitelioid ceel mesothelioma.

Some patients who ave had a successful extrapleural pneumonectomy are now enjoying long remissions . A study of 120 patients, who underwent extraplural pneumonectomy at the dana-Farber cancer lnstitute in Boston between the years 1980 and 1995, revealed that 22 persent of these patients suvvied five years or longer. The surgery for these patients had beemn ollowed by chemotherapy and radation (cancer help UK,2008).

removing most o the mesothelioma from patient in stage 111 in a procedure called pleurectomy / decortication may also incrase apatient"s life expectancy. The aim of this prcedure is palliative, as it can cntrl fluid buildup and relieve pain and pressure. Factors lnfluencing the Prognosis
The patient"s overall health status ans age affect the prognosis.

The Ameican cancer sociely reports that 75 percent of those diagnosed with mesothelioma are 65 years old or older . Men are five times more likely to have mesothelioma than women are .

When mesothelioma is dagnosed , the doctors look at how far the cancer has spread and several health factors . Pleural mesothelioma patients have a poorer prgosis if they are experiencing chest pain , shortness of breath , inablity to perfrm daily tasks , weight loos , a low red blood cell count , a high white blood cell count , and hig blood levels of a substance called LDH. American cancer society , most mesothelioma patients who have all these factors present pa away within six months of theri diagnosis . It is rere mesothelioma survival rate .

The percent of cancer patients who live five years or more ater heir diagnosis for cancer is called the five year survival rate. In 2006, the five years for mesothelioma was estimated at around 10present .The American cancer society reminds people that this rate is slowly improving and that it is based on people who were diagnosed and teated more than five years ago.Patients who are newly diagnosed may have a higher survival rate because treatment for mesothelioma is continuing to improve.

GATA-1: A Protein That Regulates Proteins

Proteins are the cell’s special machines that perform a variety of tasks. Some of them help to regulate the production levels of other proteins by influencing the transcribing of the DNA genes that code for the proteins. New research is investigating how one such transcription factor, GATA-1, works and, as usual, it isn’t simple.

Looking at baby red blood cells in mice, the research found the genes that GATA-1 influences are positioned together along the DNA molecule. GATA-1 binds to specific locations along the DNA molecule and genes that cluster around those locations tend to be induced or repressed by the binding of GATA-1. Genes not in these clusters are relatively unaffected. So if GATA-1 is to influence the production of certain proteins, then the corresponding genes need to be positioned in these regulatory clusters.

But why are some genes induced while others are repressed? One factor is how close the gene is to the GATA-1 protein. The closer genes tend to be induced whereas the more distant genes tend to be repressed. So the positioning of the genes is even more fine-tuned. Not only are the genes to be influenced found in the regulatory clusters, but their position within the cluster is important.

There are other factors as well. For instance, TAL1 is another transcription factor and when it is absent the nearby genes are usually repressed. This is usually accompanied by a modification of one of the histone proteins around which the DNA is wrapped. Specifically, the 27th amino acid in histone H3, a lysine, is trimethylated (three methyl groups are added to the side chain).

These and other factors help to explain how GATA-1 works to regulate protein production, and why some genes are induced while others repressed. But the observed factors do not fully explain the patterns of protein production. For instance, many repressed genes do not lack the TAL1 transcription factor. There is still more to be learned.

Evolutionists believe these protein regulation mechanisms and factors arose from molecular mishaps that were passed on. Those mishaps that luckily helped out persisted. The gene positionings, GATA-1 design, production and binding sites, TAL1, histone trimethylation machine, and other intricacies just happened to arise by happenstance. And they worked. Religion drives science and it matters.

Yeast Ribosomal RNA Genes Boost Genome Stability

Genes coding for ribosomal RNA help to maintain the stability of yeast genomes, according to a study appearing online today in Science.

By comparing four Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different ribosomal RNA gene copy numbers, a Japanese research team found that that the strains with fewer ribosomal genes or rDNA were more sensitive to DNA damage caused by chemicals or ultraviolet light. This sensitivity seems to be due to a role for rDNA genes in recombination repair and sister chromatid cohesion. As such, the findings suggest rDNA amplification systems may have evolved in eukaryotic cells to maintain genome stability.

"The extra rDNA copies facilitate condensin association and sister-chromatid cohesion, thereby facilitating recombinatorial repair" senior author Takehiko Kobayashi, a researcher affiliated with Japan's Graduate University for Advanced Studies and the National Institute of Genetics, and co-authors wrote.

Organisms often have multiple sequences coding for rRNA and other RNA products, the researchers explained. In yeast, for example, tandem repeat sequences of rDNA genes are often found in clusters along chromosomes — past research suggests chromosome 12 houses some 150 copies of rDNA genes.

A gene amplification system in yeast and other eukaryotes seems to prop up the number of rDNA genes, despite gene loss through recombination. And although some rDNA is transcribed into rRNA, at least half of the copies of yeast rDNA aren't. A similar pattern has been reported in other organisms, including plants, the team noted, which seem to have thousands of untranscribed rDNA copies.

In an effort to explore what extra copies of rDNA genes are doing in the yeast genome, the researchers examined four S. cerevisiae strains that had 20, 40, 80, or 110 copies of rDNA genes.

Each of the strains produced typical levels of rRNA and grew well under normal conditions. But when the yeast strains were exposed to ultraviolet light or to the chemical methyl methanesulfonate, the strains with fewer rDNA copies were more sensitive to these DNA damaging agents.

By curbing rDNA transcription in the strain with the greatest number of rDNA copies by removing RNA polymerase I genes, the team showed that they could make this strain as sensitive to DNA damage as the low copy strain.

Their subsequent experiments suggest the S. cerevisiae strain with just 20 copies of rDNA apparently undergoes increased rDNA recombination following DNA damage compared with strains that had more rDNA copies.

And, the team noted, this strain also had more chromosomal damage and replication problems — particularly involving chromosome 12 — than the high copy strain.

When they screened yeast mutants looking for mutations that eliminated the rDNA copy number-related sensitivity to DNA damage, the researchers identified several genes involved in recombination repair.

Based on such findings, they propose that yeast stains with fewer rDNA copies may be less able to repair recombination changes to rDNA because so many of the genes are tied up in the process of transcription.

In addition, their experiments suggest low copy rDNA strains have problems with cohesion between sister chromatids, adding to their DNA damage sensitivity.

"Our results suggest that multiple copies of rDNA are required to reduce rDNA transcription and allow efficient replication-coupled recombination repair by facilitating condensin association and sister-chromatid cohesion," the team wrote.

And because bacteria have far fewer rDNA copies than eukaryotic cells — and lack the rDNA amplification system found in these cells — they argued that rDNA copy number evolution might correspond to the advent of organisms with larger cells.

"Bigger cells needed more ribosomes and rDNA transcription," the researchers concluded. "This increased rDNA transcription would have been toxic due to greater sensitivity to DNA damage caused by environmental factors … selecting for cells that can maintain multiple rDNA copies, and resulting in the evolution of the rDNA amplification system."