Sunday, 21 August 2011

New Technique For Modifying Plant Genes Developed

Researchers at the University of Minnesota and Massachusetts General Hospital used a tool for genome engineering who developed the model to make a crop resistant to herbicides, without significant changes in its DNA.

"It 's always a GMO(genetically modified organisms), but the change was subtle," said Daniel Voyta, lead author and director of U of M Center for genome engineering. "We made a small change in the DNA sequence of the plant instead of adding foreign DNA."

The new approach has the potential to help scientists to modify plants to produce food, fuel and fiber in a sustainable manner, minimizing concerns about genetically modified organisms

For the study, the researchers have created a custom enzyme called zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) to modify a single gene in the cells of tobacco plants. The modified cells were then cultured to produce mature plants that survived exposure to herbicides.

The research is published online by Nature on April 29.

"This is the first real advance in technology to genetically modify plants to the foreign DNA was introduced into the chromosomes of plants in the early 1980's," said Voyta. "It could become a revolutionary tool for the manipulation of plants, animals and the human genome."

Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) were designed enzymes that bind to specific DNA sequences and to make changes in or near the binding site. The standard method for genetically modifying an organism is to introduce foreign genes in a genome without knowing where they will be integrated. The randomness of the standard method resulted in concerns about potential health and environmental risks of genetically modified organisms.

Voyta is co-founder of the zinc finger Consortium, which has developed a strategy of do-it-yourself for academic researchers. The consortium is led by co-author J. Keith Joung, a pathologist at Massachusetts General Hospital and associate professor at Harvard University. The consortium has published his method (called Pool Engineering oligomerized, or open) in July 2008 in the journal Molecular Cell. Nature published an article on the view and open a business strategy in September 2008.

Laboratory Voyta 'ZFNs created by the open method used to modify the tobacco cells to make them resistant to herbicides. According Voyta, open ZFNs can be used to improve the nutrition of crops, plants are more favorable for conversion into biofuels, and help plants adapt to climate change.

"The world becomes more and more plants to solve many problems. Now we have a new set of tools to help you." Voyta said.

Voyta next steps "will be to apply the technology in Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant, and rice, the world's most important food crops. It 'also the adaptation of algae to produce biofuels.

"The technology is ready for prime time," said Voyta. "There is no scientific reason can not be applied to plants grown today to improve agricultural production and practices."

Saturday, 2 July 2011

Living well beyond 100

Popular culture, as reflected in movies, fashion, and literature, is preoccupied with remaining young. A growing anti-aging industry offers myriad products and services to tap into the elusive fountain of youth, with plenty of hucksters and charlatans preying on our dreams. The quest for youth has been with us since antiquity. King Gilgamesh, who ruled parts of Mesopotamia around 3000 B.C., searched for immortality after a close friend died. To accomplish this divine goal,
he had to become a half-god, according to Babylonian legend. The first historical record of a treatment to reverse aging is an Egyptian papyrus dated around 1600 B.C. that describes an ointment for regaining youth (without evidence of success or a money-back guarantee). Youth concoctions are still produced and consumed daily, but thus far, the real fountain of youth has come from science and medicine.

Saturday, 28 May 2011

HHS questions safety of new mesothelioma radiation therapy

A recent study conducted by S. U. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) suggests that there is insufficient evidence available to support applications for safety and efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT).

Currently used to treat mesothelioma cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radiation therapy, SBRT is using the relatively new technology. SBRT allows them to accurately identify and treat areas affected by cancer without harming surrounding healthy tissues.

A brief was prepared for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality HHS discuss the benefits and highlights the SBRT treatment. Preparation of the presentation was made by N. Kelley Tipton, MPH, Institute for the ECRI Evidence-based Practice Center. More than 5,500 articles have literally been tested for memory. And 24 percent were deemed relevant and used for further studies, these data included and the cover in case of malignant tumors treated with SBRT without receiving treatment for other forms of radiation.

The brief said that although SBRT is currently used for treatment of mesothelioma and a variety of NSCLC, a comprehensive systematic review of current literature can not answer questions about the efficacy and safety of more than SBRT other radiotherapeutic ".

Radiotherapy is often used in combination with surgery and chemotherapy for treatment of mesothelioma. Mesothelioma is caused by asbestos fibers and is characterized by an irregular pattern of tumors that spread through the lining of the lungs (pleural mesothelioma), or the skin of other abdominal cavity (peritoneal mesothelioma). There is no known cure for both types of mesothelioma.

The document prepared for the HHS also said SBRT "requires a rigorous quality control and quality assurance measures for treatment planning and delivery of treatment." This raises doubts about the ability of HHS to systematically provide strict specifications. In conclusion, the members of the research team suggests, "Comparative studies are needed to provide evidence that the theoretical advantages of SBRT treatment compared to radiation actually occur in clinical practice."

Clinical trials are planned for 2013 to ensure the safety and effectiveness of SBRT in patients with mesothelioma and NSCLC.

Immune system defense cells thought to be ‘disarmed’ by asbestos

A recent study published in International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology suggests that asbestos fibers can cause mesothelioma not only cancer but also the body's defenses against unnecessary. The researchers examined the immune system is the main response, natural killer (NK), in this study put these cytotoxic cells for testing.

If inhaled or ingested, asbestos fibers can present in the lining of organs start of a process of change leading to mesothelioma cancer. Characterized by an irregular network of cancer, mesothelioma specific to the lining of the lungs is called pleural mesothelioma, when in the lining of other abdominal cavity is called peritoneal mesothelioma.

Mesothelioma takes decades to develop, often twenty to fifty years. The symptoms show during the last step and the tumor is more aggressive and are often confused with symptoms of pneumonia or bronchitis. Many patients have no idea I've ever been exposed to asbestos and therefore have no reason to consult a medical advisor.

Mesothelioma affects about twenty thousand people each year worldwide. However, asbestos continues to be used throughout the world and in many countries without adequate collateral. Highly regulated in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia, asbestos has become a security issue clean, rather than an industry leader in these countries.

Mesothelioma is often associated with asbestos in the workplace, which is thought to have peaked in the early 1970s in the United States. Because the latency period associated with mesothelioma cancer estimated in the United States are considered a peak now.

Most mesothelioma patients aware of their illness later in life, usually around the age of retirement. Life expectancy after a diagnosis of mesothelioma is short, from six months to two years. Mesothelioma treatments usually include a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

The Japanese study, conducted at Kawasaki Medical School, examined the effects of asbestos on NK cells, which under normal circumstances, would lead the fight against the invasion of the body of tumors and viruses. The NK cells contain protein targeting unwanted cell types. In a study of five months, NK cells were significantly depleted their defensive capabilities, having been exposed to asbestos throughout the test. NK cells exposed to asbestos for only two weeks showed a lower level of cytotoxicity, the toxic level of impact on target cells. NK cells from mesothelioma patient's tissue showed the same results. However, using fiberglass, asbestos, rather than to cross check the results, the outcome was not the same.

Members of the research team concluded: "These results show that asbestos has the potential to suppress the cytotoxicity of NK cells. In particular, it should be noted that both the NK cells of patients with malignant mesothelioma and those of a culture .. . from healthy volunteers with asbestos showed the same pattern of cytotoxicity decreased with low expression of NKp46. "

High asbestos levels detected in PA elementary school

Municipal buildings in the United States continues to face record levels of exposure to asbestos. What was once considered the backbone of American industry has become a threat to national security.

Asbestos was widely used between 1920 and 1980, and in the construction of many production lines. Shipbuilding, manufacture of ammunition, commercial and residential construction saw its highest level of asbestos. Only later, in the last century, that the risk of dangerous asbestos has been known. Asbestos causes serious respiratory diseases including mesothelioma, a rare cancer.

Students and faculty from Benjamin Franklin Elementary School or Philadelphia, Pennsylvania are aware of the dangers associated with exposure to asbestos. In 2003, after exceeding the level of use of their facilities, additional space adjacent to the school nearby Pilgrim Baptist Church. The church structure was tested every six months for abnormal levels of asbestos or hazardous. A test conducted in April by the Philadelphia Office of Environmental Management and Social Services and Health and Welfare Fund of Philadelphia Federation of Teachers had mixed results. levels of asbestos, which were higher than usual. Students and teachers were moved to another location nearby to await the detailed results and recommended changes to their property annexed.

Asbestos can cause mesothelioma if its fibers are inhaled or ingested toxic. These fibers accumulate on the walls of organs and initiate a process of growth transformation that spreads like a net of malignant tumors. Pleural mesothelioma is specific to the wall of the lung and peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the heart, diaphragm and other organs.

A twenty thousand the number of people suffering from mesothelioma in the world each year, but asbestos is still used. Increased use of asbestos has been seen in the developing world where safety measures and regulations are minimal, if any. These countries also lack medical services to diagnose or treat mesothelioma.

When available, mesothelioma treatments usually include a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In general, palliative in nature, treatment aimed at reducing pain and quality of life. These treatments are also used in the form of cancer directly. There is no known cure for mesothelioma.

Instances of asbestos, such as Benjamin Franklin Elementary School are expected to continue worldwide until the use of asbestos is strongly affected or stopped.

Mesothelioma qualified by PET/CT scan combo

recent article published by the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Catholic University of Rome, Italy, offers a combination of PET and CT may enhance the ability of providers to describe the current stages of mesothelioma. A PET scan shows the models and molecular abnormalities on a lever, while the CT provides a global map of the body's internal organs and tissues. Together, these two scans, doctors should give a thorough knowledge of mesothelioma that this would not be guaranteed by a single scan.

Mesothelioma is a rare cancer considered incurable and fatal. Mesothelioma is caused by exposure to toxic asbestos fibers, which can initiate cancerous changes in the lining of organs, if inhaled or ingested. There are two types of mesothelioma: pleural mesothelioma, which is specific to the lung lining and peritoneal mesothelioma, which affects other organs like the heart or diaphragm filling. Both types of mesothelioma are characterized by irregular patterns of malignant tumors.

Mesothelioma can be difficult to diagnose. After exposure to asbestos at home has begun to develop cancer, the disease requires a long latency period, often between twenty and fifty years. In its final phase, and the most aggressive, the signs begin to emerge. The symptoms resemble those of bronchitis or pneumonia mesothelioma, it is difficult to diagnose, even in its final phase. Once the appropriate diagnosis was made in life expectancy of patients is short and dark.

There are many mesothelioma treatments are available. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are often given in combination to achieve the best results. Some patients who are not healthy enough to receive such demanding procedures may choose palliative care focusing on pain management and comfort. Palliative care may also include surgery to ease breathing of the patient and reduce the spread of tumors.

Recent studies suggest that a combination PET / CT allows providers to better examine each case of mesothelioma. This allows suppliers to qualify more precisely which patients are strong enough for surgery and other invasive treatments, which are not. Being able to see the other tumor models, the size and location that allows suppliers to choose appropriate treatment options for each patient. PET / CT done together are proposed as a good tool for follow-up. Providers can control the spread of metastases or infection remains without disturbing the patient and recovery.

New gene therapy shows promise as mesothelioma treatment

Initial treatment options in oncology will shortly publish a report covers the section of the gene therapy on malignant mesothelioma. Gene therapy is a new advanced treatment using a different viral agents to provide genetic changes in the target areas. The negative effects of a virus are removed, leaving only "search and contact characteristics of the virus. This cell structure Piggy Back agent of change prepared to alter the genetic makeup of target tissues.

Mesothelioma is a rare tumor that affects about three thousand and twenty thousand Americans each year worldwide. Mesothelioma is caused by toxic asbestos fibers, which can start developing a cancer of the lining of organs, if inhaled or ingested. This development begins with a latency period of twenty to fifty years, unnoticed by patients. When symptoms do not show the mesothelioma has reached its aggressive phase. The symptoms resemble those of bronchitis and pneumonia, however, is difficult to recognize. Once a correct diagnosis is made, patients receive a prognosis mesothelioma. Life expectancy varies mesothelioma of six months to several years. Mesothelioma is considered a fatal cancer and is without remedy.

When the gene therapy agent for the mobile phone for change are released into the body target cells of mesothelioma to deliver one of three genetic modifications: Agent of cells may initiate a process of cell death in mesothelioma cells, increase the risk that the choice of treatment, or inhibit the reproduction of cells that stop the spread of cancer.

According to the researchers in gene therapy, new treatments that could be very useful in the fight against mesothelioma in several respects. Mesothelioma tumors are characterized by a large cell surface, allowing the cells to change agent greater accuracy in the performance of genetic modifications. Moreover, the tumors of mesothelioma are tend to be grouped in the early stages of the disease, if early diagnosis could be made, the agent of change cells may have a greater target area, rather than scattered smaller. This speed of delivery options and response to gene therapy.

There are currently two ongoing gene therapy trials, both sponsored by the National Cancer Institute and conducted at the University of Pennsylvania Abramson Cancer Center. It is "intrapleural gene transfer for malignant pleural mesothelioma" and "combination of gene transfer and chemotherapy. The study's authors say the recent gene therapy" has demonstrated safety and some evidence of limited effectiveness.

Japan faces mesothelioma threat

Japanese as a community are struggling to find their lives from the devastation of the earthquake and tsunami in March, another threat is looming nearby. Piles of debris and rubble on the island mystery, full of asbestos-containing materials. Once cured and relatively safe, the rubble of drying can now afford to asbestos fibers into the air, causing another, even if subtle danger.

The World Health Organization classifies asbestos as a carcinogen type 1. Known to cause lung cancer and asbestosis, asbestos may be more associated with the rare cancer mesothelioma. Mesothelioma affects about twenty thousand people in the world each year. Often, a danger in the workplace, natural disasters such as fires, floods and earthquakes can quickly release the fibers into the air deadly. Once these fibers are inhaled they begin a shift in lung cancer tumors of improper motives and coating the lining of other abdominal cavity.

Asbestos was widely used throughout the history of Japan in many industries. Its fire resistance and the quality of stabilization have made a choice desirable in construction, shipyards, refineries and many other construction trades. Health problems related to asbestos were not widely known until the last decades. Many countries are struggling to enforce safety standards in asbestos while cleaning years of use of asbestos.

Mesothelioma has a long latency period, usually between twenty and fifty years only. When they show symptoms similar to pneumonia and bronchitis, delaying correct diagnosis. Prognosis for patients with mesothelioma is sad, life expectancy after months of average diagnosis age of eighteen. There are treatment options for mesothelioma, but no known cure.

Japanese government officials are working on a plan to isolate and manage the risk of spreading asbestos fibers by countless mounds of rubble.

Tuesday, 24 May 2011

Asbestos threat at Dominion Virginia Power plant

Surry, Virginia, suffered a blackout due to a tornado that swept the region on April 16. A local power plant, owned and operated by Dominion Virginia Power (DOM), was immediately passed to the electricity generator for the rest of the division.

Due to the lack of electricity, a process required the plant's nuclear reactor refueling Sun spokesman Rick Zuercher said can take up to a month, and hundreds of entrepreneurs. The various components of the reactor are in areas or buildings separated from the central government contractors came and went throughout the plant for some time to complete the project.

One of the companies involved reported threat of asbestos, which has attracted the attention of the State Department of Labor and Industry. Asbestos is a toxic chemical known to be used in insulation systems and building elements. Heavily regulated by the S. U. Environmental Protection Agency, asbestos is a cause of serious respiratory diseases such as lung cancer, asbestosis and mesothelioma, a rare cancer.

Mesothelioma is perhaps most commonly associated with exposure to asbestos. In case of inhalation of asbestos fibers can initiate a process of mutation that develops into a system of various cancers fantasy. Pleural mesothelioma is the most common of the two types of mesothelioma, tumors that extend through the protective lining of the lung. peritoneal mesothelioma is less common, specific tumors in the lining of other abdominal cavity, such as the heart or diaphragm.

Mesothelioma has a long latency period, often between twenty and fifty years. Victims of mesothelioma usually do not know you have been exposed to asbestos, which makes early diagnosis difficult. The symptoms resemble those of pneumonia and bronchitis and has not shown that the last step and the tumor more aggressive. The diagnosis is usually followed by a short life expectancy, on average eighteen months.

Nearly three thousand Americans suffer from mesothelioma each year. Most of these cases are due to asbestos in the workplace. The World Health Organization provides a rapid increase in the number of cases of mesothelioma in the world, including asbestos continues to be used throughout the world.

State Department of Labor and Industry spokeswoman Jennifer Wester, Surry Central was part of the investigation. He said, "We're looking into it, yes," but did not comment on investigations or situation.

Zuercher said a team of experts examined the area and considered good questions on the basis of guidelines that exposure in the security structure with the Safety and Health Standards Board.

Kidney cancer treatment may benefit mesothelioma patients

A group of Austrian researchers tested chemotherapy drug temsirolimus, currently used for kidney cancer, malignant mesothelioma. Temsirolimus is an inhibitor of the kinase, but the targets and blocks the functions of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an essential protein that regulates cell growth. In cases of kidney cancer, temsirolimus has stopped or greatly slowed the growth of a malignant tumor.

Although the results of temsirolimus on cancerous cells are mesothelioma showing similarities with those of kidney cancer cells, there is no turning back. The tests showed the malignant mesothelioma cells resistant to commonly used chemotherapy drugs, cisplatin, to be more resistant to temsirolimus. This led researchers to believe that temsirolimus as second-line treatment for mesothelioma, or a medicament for use in combination with first-line treatment of others.

Mesothelioma treatments are usually administered in combination. Standard procedures include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These can be administered in the form of cancer directly, in an attempt to eradicate the malignant cells of the body, or as palliative treatment in order to improve the quality of life for patients and prolong the expectancy life.

Mesothelioma has a short life expectancy after diagnosis, with an average of eighteen months. Mesothelioma is caused by toxic chemicals that asbestos fibers, if inhaled, he began to develop cancer of the lining of the lungs and the lining of the abdominal cavity of others.

Professor Walter Berger, Ph.D., Institute of Cancer Research at the Medical University of Vienna, said that the rare cancer mesothelioma on: "Malignant mesothelioma is a serious malignancy characterized by a very poor prognosis, with an average time of patients survived less than a year This unacceptable situation is mainly caused by delayed diagnosis associated with resistance to all the distinct forms of systemic therapy available to date Mesothelioma is often caused by exposure to asbestos, and unfortunately, -.. on the basis of the long latency period - the peak incidence is found, despite the ban of asbestos still in progress so, new therapeutic options for this disease are urgently needed devastated "..

The results and conclusions of the Austrian study were published in the May issue of the Journal of Thoracic Oncology. Berger's study: "In our preclinical study, published in the BCT, we were able to demonstrate that inhibition of mTOR is the major active against oncogenic human mesothelioma, especially after the development of resistance to chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo these. results suggest the early clinical trials of mTOR inhibitors as a new strategy against mesothelioma.

Friday, 8 April 2011

Biotechnology company aids in mesothelioma research

Because the search for a cure of mesothelioma continues, new innovations in the field of biology, medicine and technology are promising. Sigma Life Sciences is a company to add their expertise to the fight against the deadly mesothelioma and other cancers. Their goal to "provide researchers with cellular models of cancer that is expected to improve drug development for personalized medicine", Sigma Life Science provides an important role in research in mesothelioma.

Sigma Life Sciences manufactures and supplies products for all areas of scientific study and research. From animal models genetically modified cell lines, Sigma Life Science provides ready-to-use and customized solutions for scientific tests. Their new line of genetically modified tumor cells is of particular interest for mesothelioma researchers.

Mesothelioma is a rare tumor that affects about you thousand Americans each year. E 'caused by asbestos, a chemical WHO has labeled as a type 1 carcinogen. use of asbestos has been reduced significantly in many countries but is still used in developing land for construction and manufacturing. The total number of mesothelioma cases is estimated at ten thousand and is expected to be increasing.

Once the asbestos fibers are inhaled, they can begin to develop cancer of the lining of the lungs and other body cavity. irregularly shaped tumors to grow for decades without showing signs or symptoms. Most patients have no idea mesothelioma being sick up to twenty to fifty years after initial exposure to asbestos. Although there are mesothelioma treatment options, there is no known cure. Patient's average life expectancy of eighteen months after being diagnosed with mesothelioma.

Using their own instrument, CompoZr, Sigma Life Science aid in the development of personalized medicine through the "target validation, identification of the mechanical action of drugs and investigations of disease development, the progression and remission. "Sigma Life Science CompoZr allowed to produce" knockout "models. The process used for the mice they won the silver star of" Top Ten Innovations of 2010 "by the magazine Scientist.

The term "knockout" refers to a process that renders a gene from a sample of cells irrelevant and removed, or "knockout" compared to cells in normal individuals. Edward Weinstein, director of the Center for the essay Sigma Life Science Laboratories SAGE, said knockout technology will be "scientists powerful new tools to study human diseases."

Sigma Life Sciences will bring its new range of models of genetically modified cells of colon-rectum and lung.

Friday, 1 April 2011

Indian Biotech Investment

India, the darling of the world in terms of the industry is concerned about the bio technology offers enormous opportunities for businesses to invest in India. The growth of the three areas of medicine, bio-technology climate, the agricultural and industrial products, and beneficial to also make India as one of the ideal destinations for global investment flows into India. Here are some areas where opportunities exist for India:

Vaccines: huge and growing population of India is among the largest world market for vaccines of all kinds. India is facing a growing demand for new generation vaccines and "combination" as DTP with hepatitis B, hepatitis A and polio vaccine injection, and several veterinary and poultry vaccines. In addition to conventional vaccines, rDNA have a market potential and offer great opportunities for business economy.

Drug Discovery: Opportunities to improve existing production structures and economies of scale based on licensing, joint ventures, the establishment of production bases and to establish rules for the distribution of royalties for all products and therapeutic drugs approved for marketing in India, in particular insulin, alpha interferon, hepatitis B surface antigen-based vaccine, erythropoietin, streptokinase, chymotrypsin, and others.

Agriculture: hybrid seeds, including genetically modified seeds such as Bt cotton represent new business opportunities based on performance improvement, and development of a manufacturing base in biopesticides and biofertilizers facilitate the entry of India in the growing market organic food or natural. genetically modified crops, like corn, cotton, millet, mustard and other vegetables diet also reinforced good potential in agriculture and also leads to improving agricultural production and productivity per hectare.

drug research: new research and developments in the field make it a center for technological development of new products and drugs with market lending to India and developed the same thing. Indian pharmaceutical companies possess competitive skills in chemical synthesis and process analysis and mining technologies, which can be used to develop new drugs and formulations. New investments in research and defense of patents successfully by a number of Indian companies in global markets has opened up new markets for ten Indian companies.

research and clinical trials: Clinical trials in India cost less than a fraction of what it costs in developed markets, clinical research organizations may apply for research projects and pilot projects in India by international companies, provided they are able to demonstrate international best practices and monitoring procedures.

Bioinformatics: Bioinformatics Indian companies can play an important role in key sectors such as mining, lexican, mapping and sequencing the DNA extraction, the design of molecular simulation on the world market for services bilinformatics. complex algorithm of writing and the use of computing power to study the 3D structures of proteins are the headlines in this area and India offers good investment opportunities for the same.

National Biotechnology Policy- Salient features

The need for an integrated biotech policy with sufficient attention to different subsets of the sector such as health, agriculture, environment, industry and other application areas is a prerequisite for calcium in the thumb to the progress of Indian biotechnology sector. National Science and Technology Policy of the Government and the Vision Statement on Biotechnology issued by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) to provide a framework and give strategic direction for different sectors to accelerate the pace of development of biotechnologies India. The policy has given meaning to the efforts of public and private sectors, the key being a quadrilateral agreement between universities, industry and other laboratories working in the field, and the State.

Main features of the policy:

• The need to increase the number of doctoral programs in life sciences and biotechnology, as a strong pool of academic leaders is essential to sustained innovation. A national working group agreed to establish programs of graduate and post-graduate model, to attract talent to the life sciences and working conditions for scientists to conduct industry-oriented research

• The need for more mature technologies such as diagnostics and vaccines. While the Indian industry is in strong product development and marketing business benefits of biotechnology in India does not have the necessary infrastructure for R & D molecular modeling, protein engineering, drug design and immunological studies. The DBT will act to facilitate a unique mechanism for wind farm window biotech plants and encourage private sector participation in infrastructure development

• India strategy should aim to increase the value of R & D and production of intellectual property rights. India needs to provide active support through incubator funds and various incentives, and increased focus on innovation, the ability to create a pipeline of products continuously. clear government policies to promote innovation and market knowledge will drive the growth of the biotechnology sector

• The need for government support, tax incentives and tax benefits are essential for this sector, biotechnology is the most research-intensive companies in the sector and to invest 20-30 percent of their operating costs in R & D or technology outsourcing. In addition, financial support for the development of early-stage products and small and medium-sized companies is the key to sustaining innovation

• Creating a Small Business Innovation Research Initiative (SBIR) DBT through the system to support small and medium-sized enterprises through loans and grants. The support system for pre-proof of concept, innovative and original research on mentoring

• Establishment of biotechnology parks to provide a mechanism for the licensing of new technologies for biotechnology companies to come to start new businesses and realize the value of early stage technology with a minimum of financial data. Parks to facilitate technology transfer by serving as a stimulus for entrepreneurship through partnership among innovators from academia, R & D institutions and industry.

• Need a mechanism for scientific, rigorous, transparent, consistent and effective assessment of biosecurity, a single national authority on biotechnology to be established and governed by an independent administrative structure.

Modern biotechnology- Sustainable growth

Modern biotechnology is expected to have a number of products for the treatment of some problems of food security in developing countries. It offers the possibility of an agricultural system that relies more on biological rather than chemical applications. Potential applications of modern biotechnology in agriculture are: to increase yields while reducing inputs of fertilizers, herbicides and insecticides, which confers salt tolerance and drought on crops, increasing the duration of post-harvest loss reduction, increasing the content of nutritious products, and distribution of vaccine. The availability of these products could only play an important role in reducing hunger and improving food security, but also have the opportunity to address some health problems in the developing world.

The achievement of higher expected returns in developing countries can contribute directly to reducing poverty, increasing household incomes of small farmers who adopt these technologies, and indirectly through their positive effects, as evidenced by the declining price of herbicides and insecticides.

priority areas, in fact, some developing countries have identified as the tolerances of alkaline earth metals, drought and soil salinity, disease resistance, crops and crops with greater nutritional value. The adoption of technologies to extend the shelf life could be useful in helping to reduce post-harvest losses in crops of regional importance. main candidates in terms of choice of crops for development are the so-called "orphan crops" such as cassava, sweet potato, millet, sorghum and sweet potatoes.

Currently, the many promises of modern biotechnology that may have an impact on food security could have been achieved in most developing countries. The adoption of modern biotechnology has been remarkably low given the number of factors behind the food safety problems. In part, this may be because the first generation of commercially available crops using modern biotechnology have been modified with genes unique to confer resistance to pests, weeds and insects, non-complex characteristics that affect crop growth in difficult conditions. Secondly, the technologies developed by companies in industrialized countries, with little or no direct investment in, and derive little economic benefit in developing countries.

Although current commercial GM crops are not designed to solve specific problems of developing countries, their adoption has shown that may be relevant in some countries - for example, the planting of herbicide-tolerant soybeans in Argentina Bt cotton as a cash crop by resource-poor farmers in China and South Africa have led to significant benefits for farmers. On average, Bt cotton farmers in China have reduced pesticide use by 70%, producing a kilogram of cotton at a cost 28% less than non-Bt farmers. These benefits have had a significant impact on health, agronomic, environmental and economic impact of about 5 million resource-poor farmers of more than eight provinces.

Different agro-economic studies have been commissioned since the introduction of seed derived from modern biotechnology in the United States. A report shows that the increase in higher yield were obtained with an insect-resistant maize, while the largest decrease in input costs has been observed in herbicide-tolerant soybeans.

There are a lot more research must be dedicated to finding solutions to food problems and use of biotechnology techniques in the field. developing countries have more interest in these technologies and therefore they need to take the lead in this.

Indian Biotech Investment

India, the darling of the world in terms of the industry is concerned about the bio technology offers enormous opportunities for businesses to invest in India. The growth of the three areas of medicine, bio-technology climate, the agricultural and industrial products, and beneficial to also make India as one of the ideal destinations for global investment flows into India. Here are some areas where opportunities exist for India:

Vaccines: huge and growing population of India is among the largest world market for vaccines of all kinds. India is facing a growing demand for new generation vaccines and "combination" as DTP with hepatitis B, hepatitis A and polio vaccine injection, and several veterinary and poultry vaccines. In addition to conventional vaccines, rDNA have a market potential and offer great opportunities for business economy.

Drug Discovery: Opportunities to improve existing production structures and economies of scale based on licensing, joint ventures, the establishment of production bases and to establish rules for the distribution of royalties for all products and therapeutic drugs approved for marketing in India, in particular insulin, alpha interferon, hepatitis B surface antigen-based vaccine, erythropoietin, streptokinase, chymotrypsin, and others.

Agriculture: hybrid seeds, including genetically modified seeds such as Bt cotton represent new business opportunities based on performance improvement, and development of a manufacturing base in biopesticides and biofertilizers facilitate the entry of India in the growing market organic food or natural. genetically modified crops, like corn, cotton, millet, mustard and other vegetables diet also reinforced good potential in agriculture and also leads to improving agricultural production and productivity per hectare.

drug research: new research and developments in the field make it a center for technological development of new products and drugs with market lending to India and developed the same thing. Indian pharmaceutical companies possess competitive skills in chemical synthesis and process analysis and mining technologies, which can be used to develop new drugs and formulations. New investments in research and defense of patents successfully for a number of Indian companies in global markets has opened up new markets for ten Indian companies.

research and clinical trials: Clinical trials in India cost less than a fraction of what it costs in developed markets, clinical research organizations may apply for research projects and pilot projects in India by international companies, provided they are able to demonstrate international best practices and monitoring procedures.

Bioinformatics: Bioinformatics Indian companies can play an important role in key sectors such as mining, lexican, mapping and sequencing the DNA extraction, the design of molecular simulation on the world market for services bilinformatics. complex algorithm of writing and the use of computing power to study the 3D structures of proteins are the headlines in this area and India offers good investment opportunities for the same.

Initiatives to promote Biotechnology in India

Without losing sight of the huge opportunities offered by the various aspects of biotechnology for the development of the nation, addressing issues of food security, agricultural production and efficiency, industrial pollution and the application and benefits of drugs The Indian government has taken a number of initiatives to promote growth of the biotechnology industry in India.

An Empowered Group of Ministers (EGOME), taking into account the provisions for the creation of special economic zones (SEZ) and the SEZ Act and rules relaxed the rules in terms of area and the area requirement Built for the biotechnology industry for the sum of 10 hectares and 40,000 square feet. This will encourage entrepreneurship, innovation and greater participation of small investors in biotechnology, health and agriculture in particular.

The Government has taken specific measures to promote the biotechnology industry and help increase sales of the biotechnology sector. Initiatives have been taken to ensure an environment conducive to industrial growth, such as exemption from the biotechnology sector a compulsory license, allowing 100 percent FDI in the sector, reducing the area of ​​SEZ at parity with the IT industry by providing tax incentives for R & D recognized industries in terms of exemption from customs duties on capital goods, the reduction of import duties of 150 percent against a weighted deduction of R & D Expenditure

Department of Biotechnology, also supports R & D and technology development, both in public and private sector to develop products and processes that provide affordable solutions from biotechnology to food insecurity and health problems and more questions.

R & D in agricultural biotechnology is supported to develop improved varieties of crops resistant to abiotic and biotic stresses, especially drought. Salt-resistant GM rice has been developed and is currently in field test. Bio fortification of staple foods as important as rice, wheat and maize improvement of macro-nutrients such as iron and zinc has been launched. The country has also participated in the International Rice Genome with ten other countries. complete sequence of the rice genome was completed. It is expected that decoded the rice genome will help in the discovery of genes and DNA for the development of improved varieties.

In health, research continues to develop low-cost and cost effective solutions to public health. A number of vaccines and diagnostics have been developed which are at different stages of the process. Diagnostics for HIV, Japanese encephalitis have been transferred to industry. Rota virus vaccine is in advanced stage of experimentation with the industry. The programs have been funded for the development of drug targets identified for the treatment of diseases or NCDs.


Throughout the world, food is a part of the cultural and social life, and has a religious significance for people. Therefore, any technological change resulting from the science of biotechnology, including changes to the genetic base of cultivated plants or animals used for food, may face social resistance. In many countries, people interact with nature, often in collaboration with religious views, is resistance to changing social and ethical issues that interfere with the genes. Considering that biotechnology will contribute to achieving the stated objective of food security and the tide on food crises in many countries, the fact remains that always the reason for the feelings and strong opposition to genetically modified foods are much more complex variables and different regions of the world.

While in developed countries and advanced developing countries, the polls indicate that the lack of information is not the main reason for the opposition to GM crops there. The public is not for or against GMOs in itself - people are discussing the pros and cons of GMOs, and are aware of the contradictions within these arguments. In addition, people are not asking for zero risk. They are well aware that their life is full of risks to be compared with each other and against the potential benefits. A key finding is that people do not react much to the genetic modification of a specific technology, but rather the context in which GMOs are developed and the benefits they are supposed to produce.

However, in less developed countries and developing countries, lack of knowledge and awareness play an important role in whipping up passion and feelings against the bogeyman known as genetically modified crops and its effects, some imaginary bad for society as a whole. The irony is that most of the arguments against genetically modified crops or are shallow or very far from reality and hide the big picture. political connotations and interests are more important, rather than a deliberate attempt to give a clear and concise manner of reality.

A key argument against GM crops is their being natural and artificial. However, the same argument was also raised during the introduction of pesticides and other elements to eliminate weeds for crop protection.

Opposition to genetically modified crops and food has a lot to do with social values ​​and political concerns of health and safety. "The awareness of their consumer rights and farmers fear the increasing dependence on multinationals, are symptoms of a deeper concern about the values ​​and priorities, the type of person who wants the environment, the role of biodiversity, risk tolerance and the people of are willing to pay price for regulation. Some people are concerned about the level of control exercised by a handful of chemical companies in the markets for seed. GMOs are emblematic of globalization on economic fears. In some areas, the hostility to GMOs is the symbol of a broader opposition to the invasion of market forces. They are perceived to create a world where money with little regard for historical traditions, cultural identities and social needs.

The potential risk of cross-pollination and contamination for the dissemination of material from genetically modified plants may be a problem for organic farming. Dispersion of material from genetically modified crops (seeds, for example) can occur over long distances, depending on the characteristics of plants and climatic conditions.

Risk Assessment of GM Foods for human health and environment

While the introduction of GM crops to solve the world food problem has come as a boon to a number of countries hit by food crisis, the experience gained so far has not been completely away from controversy. Many countries are facing opposition from various parties for the introduction of genetically modified seeds and crops in their fields. The problems are cultural, socio-economic and fears are not unfounded in a number of cases. So it becomes imperative for the countries and governments to conduct an exercise in environmental risk assessment carefully to avoid controversy introduction of new crop varieties. The program of risk assessment must include all elements that influence the introduction of any new use of non-organic varieties.

The history of risk assessment of GMOs:

When the new food (plant varieties, animal or micro-organisms) have been developed by traditional breeding methods are not generally subject to specific market risk pre-and post-market safety assessment or by national or international standards. This is in contrast with the needs of GMOs and GMOs. The concept of risk assessment of GMOs was discussed in 1975. At that time, the discovery of recombinant DNA has raised concerns among researchers about the potential creation of recombinant viruses whose escape would endanger public health and damage to the environment. Fourteen months after a voluntary moratorium on research involving recombinant DNA, the guidelines for experiments on physical and biological containment riskier were developed and adopted by the countries involved in the process.

The first legal regulation was designed to prevent accidental release of microorganisms from research facilities. Guidelines framed later approached the market of pre-human health and the requirement for environmental assessment and safety for all foods and GMOs. Many countries have implemented systems from the market before the adoption of specific regulations that require a rigorous assessment of GMOs prior to their release into the environment and / or use in food. This is to ensure adequate protection in this regard.

To ensure the consistency of the international risk analysis of GMOs, and a series of international standards bodies and regulators have adopted uniform rules. These include standards for human health and environmental safety assessment of GMOs, etc. The goal of uniform global standards for risk assessment would have been difficult, countries are required to make different decisions on the scope of the assessment, in particular resolution of whether to include social or economic.

The problems are complex and varied interests of stakeholders are often contradictory. The challenge, therefore, countries and governments and the reflection is to design a set of rules and policies that balance the interests of various stakeholders and are perceived as fair and equitable.

Recent Research Initiatives in GM Crops- Environment Impact

While recent research efforts have been in the areas of higher agricultural production, build a resistance to insects, as well as improving the nutritional value and content of the plants, efforts are also to address issues of environment and improve efficiency in the agricultural sector . A little effort, as in this area and are connected:

Increased antioxidant content. Several other content related to tomatoes have been increased, as is the case of soybeans. These nutrients are known to improve health or prevent disease. The research in this area is in a relatively early stage of development, as knowledge of the inner content is still limited and not all plant nutrients are beneficial for human consumption.

Environmental stress. Tolerance to environmental stresses by genetic modification is an area that is in the early stages of R & D. Resistance to salinity and drought are the subject of intense research. Salinity is estimated to affect 20% of agricultural land and 40% of irrigated land worldwide. Salt and drought tolerance involve many genes interact in complex requiring endless effort to unravel the mystery. Because of this multigenic character, traditional breeding techniques have had little success in creating varieties of salt or drought tolerant. tolerance to salt sensitive crops may be conferred on the transfer of multiple genes linked to an appropriate way in a plant tolerant. The expected time frame for commercialization of GM crops is not known, research is still in its infancy and there are complex issues that are faced by scientists.

The tolerance of aluminum (a limiting factor for growth in acid soils) is in the initial phase of R & D for crops, including papaya, tobacco, rice and corn, but should not be used commercially for many years.

Attempts have been made to improve the photosynthesis in plants through genetic modification. Crops such as corn and sugar cane are more efficient in converting energy into sugars that most broadleaf plants. With the introduction of genes for photosynthesis from one culture to another more efficient, the efficiency could be improved by 10% with better performance.

Characteristics of male sterility have been introduced to obtain 100% hybrid seed planting to contain the environmental impact of GM crops. Male sterile maize varieties have been approved for marketing in the United States. In addition, several male sterile oilseed rape and canola varieties were approved for environmental release and food use in the European Union (EU), Canada and the United States. Another strategy to contain the flow of genes between plants of the attempts to introduce the spread of asexual seed (seed production without pollination).

Saturday, 5 March 2011

Impact of GM crops on world agriculture scenario

Probably not a step in plant science has been, in such a short time, far-reaching consequences on agriculture, as the method described in 1983 for the genetic modification of plants through genetic engineering. In 2005, these GM varieties account for 60% of the soybean crop in the world, 14% corn, 28% cotton and 18% of rape between 2003 and 2005, the overall increase in housing throughout the world intended to GM crops was 33%. This clearly shows that the application of genetic engineering in agriculture has been a great economic success.

Genetic modification of crops to date have focused on the production of varieties to minimize crop losses due to weeds, insects and the production of resistant varieties to reduce losses to insect damage. recent developments dealing with the protection against viral and fungal infections, increased tolerance to drought and salinity, the formation of male sterile plants for the generation of hybrid production, and improving the nutritional quality of crops, such as changing the composition of fatty acids in oilseeds.

The advent of genetically modified seeds and plants to increase productivity and reduce crop losses is an advantage for countries like India, in terms of food security and the fight against hunger and poverty. The government must also ensure adequate and transparent policy framework for the emergence of a comprehensive legislation on the industry and safeguards in order to avoid possible pitfalls.

rapid progress in this field of agricultural biotechnology has received and opened new doors for scientists, businesses and policy makers to explore the possibilities of using technology in agriculture. Today, even in developing countries, land is increasingly cultivated variety of a growing number of GM crops. Research efforts are under way to genetically modify most of the plants with high economic value, such as cereals, fruits, vegetables, etc. The rapid advances in biotechnology and has opened new market opportunities for scientists and society to explore the possibility of use technology in agriculture. Today, even in developing countries, land is increasingly cultivated variety of a growing number of GM crops. Research efforts are under way to genetically modify most of the plants with high economic value, such as cereals, fruits, vegetables, etc. challenge for countries like India is to reap the benefits of new technologies and protect their interests through various measures. The challenge of producing more food grains to feed the growing population of India has already crossed one billion mark with fewer resources have bought companies to invest in GM crops.

A large number of awareness campaigns should be conducted to reach the farmers to inform them about the benefits of using seeds that are resistant to pests, diseases, herbicides, and crops resistant to drought, cold, salinity and other harsh environments. This will bring confidence among farmers and policy makers.

Impact of Biotechnology in Animal production

Biotechnology promises to make significant changes in the field of plant and animal production and health. In both areas, it will affect all stages of the production chain, agrochemicals and food processing animal by-finals.

The use of biotechnology in animal production has grown faster than its applications in crop production. Worldwide, more than half of all biotechnology research and development costs are in the field of human health. In the experimental phase, a large number of drugs, diagnostic probes, vaccines, etc. are often applied in the production of livestock before becoming available for human use. The developments in the pharmaceutical sector, therefore, have significant implications for animal production for many innovations in this sector are also applicable to animals.

The applications of biotechnology to animal production to cover four areas:

• L ', the reproduction and breeding;

• Animal health;

• Food and Nutrition;

• The growth and production.

In the field of play, the new bio-technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, cloning and sex determination of embryos have been developed for different types of livestock such as cattle. There is substantial interest in breeding programs in developing countries because the importation of frozen embryos may be cheaper than the import of live animals.

Animal Health, the second field can be improved with new biotechnological methods of diagnosis, prevention and control of animal diseases. Diagnostic tests based on the use of antibodies and vaccines against viral and bacterial diseases are particularly relevant for developing countries and a wide application for the prevention of animal disease epidemics.

Biotechnology research in the third field of animal nutrition focuses on improving the enzyme treatment of food and reduce anti-nutritional factors in certain plants that are used as food. In developing countries, these techniques could eventually increase the potential scope of crops used to feed the largest herds of cattle.

Experiments with hormones to increase milk production and meat are the subject of much debate in industrialized countries because of possible adverse effects on animals and agricultural structures. In developing countries, however, increases in specific productivity may be a primary consideration which may lead to a rapid adoption of large-scale introduction in many industrialized countries. This field is another field of application of biotechnology.

Biotechnology in Health- How to ensure growth

The obvious benefits of biotechnology for human health and life style has catapulted businesses and governments to join and create a positive framework for the industry to promote for the good of all.

The following measures can be taken by the mandarins of the captains of industry and reap the rewards of the great potential of the sector.

In the long term, the government support creative
Governments can encourage the biotech sector, providing incentives to overcome the difficult economic conditions. For example, Brazilian authorities faced with high rates of inflation and the Cuban authorities revised foreign investment laws. In reality, political will and a strong government role is essential for all countries with strengths in biotechnology. It 'the same model as the U.S. government has adopted several years ago. global high-tech industry of America in the biotechnology sector has been strongly supported by the government in almost all stages of its evolution. The loss of the most brilliant researchers and developed countries like the United States is a serious and continuing challenge for developing countries and governments can play an important role in stemming the "brain drain". Since the end of 1990, China has made concerted efforts to encourage expatriate professionals to return and contribute to research efforts. Incentives include the provision of funding for the creation of laboratories in China and programs that enable scientists to develop the business back. Similar trends were also noted in India, where a large number of NRIs returning to the country for growth opportunities and incentives offered in the country.

product specialization results of profitability:
By focusing on a specialized field is what is needed for developing countries. For example, recombinant vaccines are relatively easy to reproduce and can be much more cost-effective in the treatment of infectious diseases drug. India, for example, is developing vaccines for hepatitis B and C. With limited resources and underdeveloped private sector, targeted at specific sectors to meet both their needs and existing strengths is an effective strategy employed by some developing countries.

Private sector power products and services:
Initiate and support the growth of the private sector and the commercialization of scientific discoveries into products is what is needed. Private sector participation is essential to integrate several sources of knowledge in the field of biotechnology for health and their transformation into products and services.

Successful innovation requires collaboration:
Successful innovation requires collaboration and cooperation widespread. lack of cooperation from China has prevented its scientists to be the first in the world to sequence severe acquired respiratory syndrome (SARS).

Emerging issues in Agri-Biotechnology in India

The growing population, limited land for cultivation and the growing demand for alternative energy sources has led to greater application of the techniques of biotechnology in agriculture in India. various research institutes and departments of the Government of India and the Governments of the States to focus efforts on other exploration and exploitation of new technologies to improve agricultural production and productivity.

With the approval of Bt cotton for commercial cultivation in April 2002, seed companies more and more people are looking for technologies such as genetic modification of insect protection. There is also an increasing use of molecular markers in plant breeding.

With the promulgation of the rights of breeders and farmers 'rights bill', there is an increasing demand for molecular fingerprinting of germplasm lines of claiming ownership of these crop varieties and hybrids. There is a growing awareness that some of these new technologies will lead to future growth of the crop productivity and quality. The ability to develop or source of these technologies will determine the future leaders of agriculture in this country.

The main concerns and questions

• Excessive delays in the regulatory system as it exists today.

• Lack of adequate intellectual property protection and uncertainties relating to the capture of value.

• the doubts and apprehensions among the farmers and policy makers on various applications of biotechnology in the field.

• Lack of political consensus on various issues.

Addressing these key issues

The industry should initiate a debate on these issues and bring to the attention of legislators and other stakeholders. It 'also need to educate our farmers and agronomists on the benefits as soon Successful exploitation of new technologies in agriculture.

Early trends

There is a large part of farmers, the consumers of this technology in this country who have seen the benefits and began to ask for agro-biotechnology, such as Bt cotton, however, the industry today is not able to meet this question, because there are very few players in this field. Sensing this opportunity, some unscrupulous elements were undertaking non-essential goods and forgery in the name of some of these new technologies. In the short term, this trend can affect public confidence in these new technologies, if appropriate measures are not taken against. However, in the long term, agro-biotechnology will have a positive impact on Indian agriculture more and more benefits are real.

GM Crops- Altered nutrition and composition- Fortification

Although GM crops have emerged for some time and have revolutionized the agricultural sector, while a number of countries, many efforts are made to contribute more in the realm of avant-garde. Some of these efforts are designed to increase productivity and resistance to insects, weeds and viruses that affect the yield and production accordingly. Other initiatives in the area are also strengthening the intrinsic nature of culture in itself have an impact, positive impact on human health and development.

Some developments in the field are as follows:

vitamin-enriched rice. The best known example of a transgenic plant nutritional properties of rice containing high levels of beta-carotene - a precursor of vitamin A. Vitamin A is essential to increase disease resistance, protection against visual impairment and blindness, and improve the opportunities for growth and development. Vitamin A deficiency contributes to serious illness and infant mortality. This condition prevented the increase in disease burden for health systems in developing countries. enhanced vitamin A rice and maize are currently being developed for growing in developing countries. The current efforts to ensure that vitamin A in rice can be effectively absorbed in the human gut. Once this is solved, 300 g of transgenic rice could make a significant contribution to the daily requirement of vitamin A and the man will have a significant impact on human development.

High-iron rice. The prevalence of iron deficiency is very high in regions where rice is the staple food daily. This is because rice has a low iron content. rice seed ferritin iron-transporter protein of soybeans were found to contain twice as much iron as the seed of the variety has not been processed. Rice was transformed with three genes that increase the accumulation of iron in rice grains and iron absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.

Improving the protein content. Researchers are also studying methods that could improve the protein content of vegetable base such as cassava, bananas and potatoes. The results of greenhouse experiments show that these tubers are 35-45% more protein, and the level of essential amino acids.

Elimination of allergens and anti-nutritional factors. Cassava roots contain naturally high levels of cyanide. Since they are a staple food in tropical Africa, which led to high levels of cyanide in the blood that have harmful effects. Application of modern biotechnology to reduce the concentration of this toxic substance in cassava should reduce the preparation time.

Modification of starch and fatty acid profile. In an effort to provide healthier food, there is an effort to increase the starch content of potatoes to absorb less fat during cooking to create healthy fats, the fatty acid composition of soybean and canola has been modified to produce oils with low levels of saturated fat. R & D is currently focused on soybean, rapeseed and palm oil. Two such transgenic crops have already been approved in the United States of America.

Future trends in GM crops

The introduction of GM crops in the lexicon of the word agriculture has contributed to spend hours of research and ways the most rapid increase in areas where technology can be used for commercial applications. Now, the introduction of foreign genes in plant species of economic importance, resulting in crop improvement and production of new products in the factories are no longer regarded with awe. Nor is the use of industrial chemicals and environmentally friendly alternative cost effective as biofuels, bio-fertilizers and organic pesticides that are also due to increased agricultural production, improve health and safety standards.

The introduction of commercial crops with agronomic traits is often referred to as the first generation of GM plants. The development of GM crops with agronomic traits and the continuous production of a range of GM crops with improved properties is also running under laboratory conditions. Several new characters are being tested in laboratory and field trials in a number of countries. Many of these GM crops "second generation are still under development and not likely to enter the market for several years. All of the GM crops on the market for commercial applications only after careful consideration and legal approvals.

The main areas of research and development (R & D) in the field of GM crops are as follows:

1. agronomic traits and resistance to virus

2. Altered nutrition and composition.

Improvement of agronomic traits

This evolution makes plants resistant to pests and diseases and helps the crop to grow without being affected by weeds and insects. In the short term, most recently commercialized GM crops continue to focus on agronomic traits, including herbicide resistance and insect resistance and, indirectly, the potential yield. R & D in this area focuses on:

1. Enter characters herbicide resistance in a wider range of varieties of corn, soybean and rapeseed.
2. Broadening the range of herbicides that can be used in combination with GM crops resistant to herbicides, such as the introduction of herbicide tolerance to bromoxynil, oxynil and sulfonylurea.
3. New genes for insect resistance in plants Stack, such as new variants containing other Bt toxins

Adding resistance to viruses. resistance to the virus could be extremely important for improving agricultural productivity. The following field trials of crops resistant to the virus are underway in different parts of the world: the sweet potato (feathery mottle virus), corn (maize streak virus) and African cassava (mosaic virus). These crops could be marketed within 3-5 years. Because of its complex genome, the work on virus-resistant wheat and barley yellow dwarf progress is still being studied in the laboratory.

Economic cost adopting GM crops

Many reports of organizations or in support or criticism of genetically modified foods have been published, and the number of applications has increased or decreased the profitability of agricultural practices, including GMOs can be found in world literature.

A review of the National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy concluded that biotechnology has and will continue to have a significant impact on improved efficiency, reduced costs and reduce pesticide use producer. GM Bt cotton appears to have significant benefits for small farmers in many parts of the world. On the other hand, some report lower yields, continued dependency on chemical sprays, the loss of exports and profits for farmers critical reduced following the use of biotechnology.

A U.S. Department of Agriculture report on the economic impact of GM crops summarized a positive impact of the adoption of Bt cotton on the farm system, but a negative impact in the case of an improvement in the performance of Bt corn also been observed with the herbicide tolerant maize, while significant was observed with soybeans resistant to herbicides.

A detailed study by the European Commission on the economic impact of GM crops on agriculture has concluded that the rapid adoption by farmers in the United States was the result of expectations of strong profitability. However, there is no conclusive evidence on profitability at farm level of GM crops.

The advantage of the land the most immediate and tangible benefits to farmers of GM crops seems to be a combination of performance and convenience of genetically modified crops - in particular the varieties resistant to herbicides. These crops allow for more flexibility in cropping practices and in some cases, due to reduced work or flexible. For insect-resistant crops like Bt corn, production losses are reduced compared to conventional maize. However, cost-effectiveness of Bt corn depends on a number of factors, in particular growing conditions.

The profitability of GM crops should be tested over a long period of time. First, there are significant fluctuations in annual yield and price and it is difficult to isolate the possible effects of biotechnology. Second, changes in supply and demand of the food chain must be considered together. A recent study analyzed the international spread of the result of the use of GMOs shows the need to differentiate between cultures and regions. In China, a region with a base generally high pesticide and pesticide poisoning among farmers, a report showed that use of Bt cotton significantly reduced pesticide use without reducing the output per hectare and the quality cotton. This led to significant health and economic benefits for small farmers.

There seems to be evidence of the profitability of GM crops in specific situations, especially growing conditions are strongly dependent on regional agro-ecological factors, particularly the reference pressure of pests and pesticides. On the other hand, it seems that there are situations where these factors do not allow the profitability of GM crops, or when other practices for the installation may be more value for various reasons or market Regional.

Assessment of the impact of GM foods on human health

Introduction of GM crops for human consumption has been fraught with controversy and conflict of interests of various parties such as governments, companies and research institutions and farmers and consumers. To balance the stakes of all stakeholders and to carry out an appropriate procedure for risk assessment, it is essential that the first and most important assessment of their impact on human health is given due consideration by policy makers around the world . It is not that the world governing bodies are not aware of the problem. In July 2003, the Codex Commission adopted the following principles, which although not binding on national governments, but are considered in the performance assessment:

• Principles for the risk analysis of foods derived from modern biotechnology;

• Guidelines for the conduct of food safety assessment of foods derived from recombinant-DNA plants;

• Guidelines for the conduct of food safety assessment of foods produced using recombinant DNA microorganisms.

These principles and guidelines presuppose make a preliminary assessment of the market, made on a case by case basis, including an assessment of both direct effects (from the inserted gene) and side effects (which may be incurred as a result of adding the new gene). These principles and guidelines in order to assess the quality and impact of GM foods require investigation of:

(A) direct health effects (toxicity);

(B) the tendency to cause allergic reactions (allergenicity);

(C) specific components thought to have nutritional or toxic properties;

(D) the stability of the inserted gene;

(E) nutritional effects associated with genetic modification, and

(F) any adverse effects that may result from the insertion of the gene.

Potential direct effects on human health

The potential direct health effects of GM foods are generally comparable to the known risks associated with conventional food, and include, for example, the potential to cause allergies and toxicity and its impact on the nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food. While many of these issues have not traditionally been evaluated for conventional food products, the safety assessment of GM food, followed by a gradual process aided by a structured series of questions. The factors taken into account in the safety assessment include:

• Identity of the gene of interest, including sequence analysis.
• Source of the gene of interest.
• Composition of GMOs.
• The protein product expression of the novel DNA.
• the potential toxicity.
• Potential cause allergy.

Its important to be taken into account by all the decision makers of these areas in order to instill a sense of trust between those who are skeptical about the use of genetically modified crops for human consumption. This will have a positive impact on growth and food security among nations.

Saturday, 26 February 2011

Biotechnology and food Security

The official definition of food security adopted at the World Food Summit in 1996, said: "Food security exists when all people at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, healthy and nutritious food to meet their needs dietary and food preferences for an active and healthy life. "

The thrust of food security is to achieve a significant increase in agricultural production in a sustainable way and achieve a substantial improvement of people's right to adequate food and culturally appropriate food supply. The underlying assumption is that the means to increase food supplies in many countries exist but are not realized due to a number of constraints. During the identification and resolution of these constraints, we must find ways to improve in a sustainable manner and reduce the variability from year to year in food production and pave the way for greater access to food.

The causes of food insecurity involves a complex interaction of economic, social, political and technical. The problem for some communities, it can produce enough food. For others, lack of money to buy a bigger choice of food is the problem. Food insecurity and poverty are strongly correlated. The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA), defines poverty as a deficit of three levels: the lack of safety, capacity and opportunities. Poverty is the main cause of food insecurity and food insecurity, hunger and malnutrition to prevent people from acquiring skills and reduce their productivity. The delay of agricultural productivity is closely associated with rural poverty and hunger. Food insecurity is still a reality for vulnerable people in all societies and in all countries, developed and developing countries.

In developed countries, the problem of food security is often a reflection of the affordability and accessibility, through traditional channels. The food security of rural poor in developing countries is to produce or obtain enough food to feed his family and able to maintain this level of production year after year ..

Challenges for Food Safety According to one estimate, in developing countries, some 800 million undernourished people, including a large proportion living on less than $ 1 a day, despite a drop of over 50% of product prices food world in recent years. world food production has exploded, making a variety of food available to all consumers. Despite the drop in food prices in developed countries has benefited the poor who spend a considerable part of their income on food, this trend has not had much impact on most developing countries, with the 'darker paint SSA' s image.

In addition, agricultural production has stagnated for a considerable period of time or just managed to achieve a significant growth. E 'in this context that the search for solutions to declining crop yields requires an effort that improves the heritage upon which agriculture, in particular, soil, water and biodiversity. Transform farmers in farming systems by introducing new technologies, including tools and techniques of biotechnology processes that integrate agro-ecological food production, minimizing negative effects on the environment, is essential for sustainable agriculture. In addition, increasing the crops must be met to use the technology locally at low cost and minimal inputs without causing environmental damage.

E 'in this context that biotechnology can only come from a rescue deal with international food. Introduction of genetically modified high-performance, fire techniques such as gene transfer, tissue culture, etc. are intended to help scientists achieve results with minimal social and economic costs.

Environmental Biotechnology

Environmental biotechnology is the use of living organisms for a wide range of applications in hazardous waste treatment and pollution control. For example, a fungus is used for cleaning a harmful substance discharged by the paper industry. Marine biotechnologists are studying ways that bacteria can detoxify the estuaries of materials such as brines Wed chemicals that cause environmental problems in many industries.

Environmental biotechnology can effectively clean many hazardous waste than conventional methods and significantly reduce our dependence on methods of cleaning the waste, as incineration or hazardous waste sites. This technology can be an advantage for a number of developing countries that face a recurring problem of finding effective ways to treat their waste per day.

How does it work?
Using biotechnology to treat pollution problems is not a new idea. Communities have relied on complex populations of naturally occurring microbes for the treatment of waste water for more than a century. Every living organism, animals, plants, bacteria and so on, ingests nutrients to live and produces a by-product stream as a result. different organisms need different types of nutrients. Some bacteria grow on the chemical components of waste. Some microorganisms, for example, feed on toxic materials such as methylene chloride, detergents and creosote.

Businesses that benefit

• The chemical industry
The use of biocatalysts for the production of novel compounds, reduce wastes and improve chemical purity.

• The plastics industry:
Decreased use of oil for the production of plastic, making "green plastics" from renewable crops like corn or soybeans.

• The paper industry:
Improve production processes, including the use of enzymes to reduce toxic byproducts from pulp.

• The textile industry:
Decreasing toxic byproducts of dead tissue and finishing. laundry detergents are becoming more efficient with the addition of enzymes to their active ingredients.

• Food industry:
Improving the cooking process, the conservatives derived from fermentation and analytical techniques for food safety.

• The livestock sector:
Adding enzymes to improve absorption of nutrients and reduce phosphate products.

• The energy sector:
Use of enzymes for making biofuels and non-polluting agricultural waste.

Biotechnology in Food- Risk Assessment

Probably not a discovery in the field of green biotechnology was in such a short time, far-reaching consequences on agriculture, as the method described in 1983 for the genetic modification of plants through genetic engineering. In 2005, these GM varieties account for 60% of the soybean crop in the world, 14% corn, 28% cotton and 18% of rape between 2003 and 2005, the overall increase in housing throughout the world intended to GM crops was 33%. This clearly shows that the application of genetic engineering in agriculture has been a great economic success.

Genetic modification of crops have focused on producing varieties for cut crop losses due to insects and weeds. recent developments dealing with the protection against viral and fungal infections, increased tolerance to drought and salinity, the formation of male sterile plants for the generation of hybrid production, and improving the nutritional quality of crops and increasing the shelf-life of many perishable products like tomatoes, identifying the genes responsible for early maturation of the same.

Although the benefits of genetically modified organisms are numerous and more and more research is directed toward the field, the use of GMOs may pose risks to human health and development. Many genes used for GMOs in food supply have not been before. As new types of traditional food crops are generally not subject to a pre-market safety assessment, assessment of genetically modified foods are usually made before the first crops are marketed. It 'necessary to assess the risks to consider both intentional and unintentional effects of these foods in the food chain. GM foods are currently marketed in the international market have passed risk assessments in several countries and are not subject, and have been shown to pose risks to human health. But still there are many questions that must be handled with care.

The application of modern biotechnology to food production presents new opportunities and new challenges to human health and development. recombination, the most famous modern biotechnology, can plants, animals and micro-organisms genetically modified (GM) with new features beyond what is possible through the selection and conventional breeding techniques. E 'acknowledged that techniques such as cloning, tissue culture and marker-assisted breeding are often considered as modern biotechnology, in addition to the genetic modification.

The challenge of producing more food grains to feed a growing world population and reduce agricultural waste and increasing productivity with fewer resources has led companies to invest in GM crops and undertake new research in the field. The advantages are many encouraging results. What is needed is a concerted effort to allay fears.

Potential unintended effects of GM foods on human health

Effects of GMOs, such as increased levels of anti-nutritional or toxic components in foods have been found in conventional breeding. Agents traditional farming methods, including tissue culture, may be an option a bit 'better genetic imbalance. It is believed that the introduction of a new gene can lead to increased levels of toxicity or decreased level of nutritional value found in natural organisms. The impact assessment considered all factors it is important to avoid complications and problems of implementation of the post.

Agents and immune responses in allergy to genetically modified foods:
Food allergies or sensitivities are adverse reactions to foods triggered by the immune system. Allergic reactions to foods are well known. The main food allergens are proteins and derivatives, eggs, fish, milk, peanuts, shellfish, soy, tree nuts (almonds, walnuts, cashews and walnuts) and wheat. Considering that the most important allergens are well known and advanced test methods have been developed, traditionally developed foods are not generally tested for allergens before they are marketed.

The application of modern biotechnology crops has the potential to make food less safe if the protein is newly added cause an allergic reaction, once the food supply. protocols for assessing the risk of food allergy consists of three: (1) Evaluation of allergenicity (either food or a potential cause of food allergy) exposure assessment (2) (How likely is it that people meet the agent that cause allergies), and (3) sensitivity analysis (such as people with allergies react to this new food.)

Monitoring of human health and the environment:
In the future, GM crops can have a wider recognition for the environmental release, with or without permission to enter the human food chain. In such situations, it is important to consider whether to apply the post-marketing surveillance for unexpected environmental spread of GMOs) that may pose a risk to food safety. Methods for detection of GMOs into the environment could cause the application of two well-established body of scientific method:
(1) DNA-based diagnostic marker
(2) appropriate sampling protocols (in terms of statistical power) and cost-effectiveness.

Although GM crops have tried to solve the problems of the most powerful men say to help the food security and reduce poverty, it is necessary to make an adequate assessment of all factors negative impact of GM crops can be considered. While many scientific studies are being prepared on this matter so that a series of guidelines and standards can be developed and followed by all. This requires a careful evaluation and respectful of the interests at stake and how to balance these often conflicting interests.

Indian Biotechnology Scenario- An analysis

According to a NASSCOM-KPMG study, the R & D and biotech industry will reach a turnover of 3 billion dollars by 2010 and the bioinformatics market will reach $ 2 billion. Indian companies have become suppliers of information to customers worldwide biotech. The sequencing of genes and dissemination of genomic information for drug companies is the size of the next boom industry. India has the potential to become one of the strengths of choice in the development and manufacture of genomic medicine with a good atmosphere and well-directed research efforts and initiatives. Currently, there are about 190 biotech companies in India. The scenario in India Biotech

India is a huge market for products based on biotechnology. However, most of these products are not developed here but are imported by domestic and foreign companies. According to the analysis of, the Indian biotech industry is expected to reach Rs 4,40,000 crore in 2020.

The current demand for biotech products in India, in terms of predicting and evaluating the Information Technology Council (TIFAC) report are: - The products of fermentation-based vaccines.

- DMA products and antibiotics among healthcare products.

- Alcohol, organic acids, enzymes, amino acids, yeast and other industrial products.

There were about 400 companies in India with activities related to biotechnology in 1995. This number has increased to about 850. India and biotechnology industry is small compared to its pharmaceutical industry (about 16,000 drug makers big and small). Biotech in India started in the mid-1980s and has focused in large national or multinational drug. In 1986, the Indian government established the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Ministry of Science and Technology. Many small biotechnology companies have been created since then.

The actors can be divided into the following companies:

- Contract Research Organizations: Sygen Labs, Biological E, Bangalore Genie, Avestha Gengraine etc.

- Biotechnology company that engages in basic research using recombinant DNA technology and develops and markets its products: like Shanta Biotech, Bharat Biotech & Biocon India.

- Wings biotech companies or subsidiaries of pharmaceutical / agro-technology, research on measurement using recombinant DNA technology: Lupin Labs, Wockhardt, RPG Life Sciences, Monsanto, Cadila Healthcare, Dr Reddy's Labs, etc.

- Companies that do not use recombinant DNA technology, but apply the principles of biotechnology: floriculture, tissue culture and society of industrial application of biotechnology industry such as enzymes, fermentation and bio-chemicals.

Biotechnology in Indian context

The biotechnology industry is the sunrise and perhaps one of the emerging economy of India's new generation, resulting in phenomenal growth in research initiatives and the creation of jobs. The broad base of intellectual capacity and skills are well developed, for R & D cost and benefit of all tend to make India as one of the most promising markets worldwide and offer great opportunities for companies and the ' industry to invest and reap the benefits thereof. The government is also trying hard to define and change the political framework in order to make India a dynamic center for research on bio-technology center and infrastructure development.

Biotechnology in India can be divided into three main areas - the pharmaceutical industry on improved health care, feed and pharmaceutical research, the agricultural sector leading to the introduction of new crops and to produce improved plants and industrial lead business creation and new economy industries.

The Indian biotech industry has core competencies in areas and sectors:

• The growth in fermentation products.
• Using parts of plants and animals to extract value-added products of high purity.
• The use of cell culture techniques and microbiological.
• The techniques of plant cultivation and animal breeding technology based on molecular methods.
• cultivation of plant cells / tissue, etc.
• The technology of DNA of plants and animals
• The isolation of plant and animal products.
• Bioprocess Engineering
• Gene manipulation of microbes and animal cells;

Market success Story Biotech

India is an example of successful development in the field of Bio technology is concerned about improving health care and animal products and agricultural growth and plant products. Development and production of indigenous hepatitis B vaccine by a number of companies around the world for patent plafactor sound system of fermentation called drug distribution of State for gene therapy, the domestic production of HIV I & II Rapid Detection Test Kit the development of various other indigenous diagnostic kits and the transfer of industry, the introduction of transgenic Bt cotton and the successful testing under controlled conditions of a number of vegetables, horticultural crops, research on genetically modified seeds and organic fertilizers and organic products, development of human insulin, growth hormone, interferons (alpha 2a and 2b), the development of vaccines for animals, such as vaccines for poultry are a few success stories in Since the growth of this sector is concerned.