Saturday, 5 March 2011

GM Crops- Altered nutrition and composition- Fortification

Although GM crops have emerged for some time and have revolutionized the agricultural sector, while a number of countries, many efforts are made to contribute more in the realm of avant-garde. Some of these efforts are designed to increase productivity and resistance to insects, weeds and viruses that affect the yield and production accordingly. Other initiatives in the area are also strengthening the intrinsic nature of culture in itself have an impact, positive impact on human health and development.

Some developments in the field are as follows:

vitamin-enriched rice. The best known example of a transgenic plant nutritional properties of rice containing high levels of beta-carotene - a precursor of vitamin A. Vitamin A is essential to increase disease resistance, protection against visual impairment and blindness, and improve the opportunities for growth and development. Vitamin A deficiency contributes to serious illness and infant mortality. This condition prevented the increase in disease burden for health systems in developing countries. enhanced vitamin A rice and maize are currently being developed for growing in developing countries. The current efforts to ensure that vitamin A in rice can be effectively absorbed in the human gut. Once this is solved, 300 g of transgenic rice could make a significant contribution to the daily requirement of vitamin A and the man will have a significant impact on human development.

High-iron rice. The prevalence of iron deficiency is very high in regions where rice is the staple food daily. This is because rice has a low iron content. rice seed ferritin iron-transporter protein of soybeans were found to contain twice as much iron as the seed of the variety has not been processed. Rice was transformed with three genes that increase the accumulation of iron in rice grains and iron absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.

Improving the protein content. Researchers are also studying methods that could improve the protein content of vegetable base such as cassava, bananas and potatoes. The results of greenhouse experiments show that these tubers are 35-45% more protein, and the level of essential amino acids.

Elimination of allergens and anti-nutritional factors. Cassava roots contain naturally high levels of cyanide. Since they are a staple food in tropical Africa, which led to high levels of cyanide in the blood that have harmful effects. Application of modern biotechnology to reduce the concentration of this toxic substance in cassava should reduce the preparation time.

Modification of starch and fatty acid profile. In an effort to provide healthier food, there is an effort to increase the starch content of potatoes to absorb less fat during cooking to create healthy fats, the fatty acid composition of soybean and canola has been modified to produce oils with low levels of saturated fat. R & D is currently focused on soybean, rapeseed and palm oil. Two such transgenic crops have already been approved in the United States of America.