Saturday, 26 February 2011

Biotechnology and food Security

The official definition of food security adopted at the World Food Summit in 1996, said: "Food security exists when all people at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, healthy and nutritious food to meet their needs dietary and food preferences for an active and healthy life. "

The thrust of food security is to achieve a significant increase in agricultural production in a sustainable way and achieve a substantial improvement of people's right to adequate food and culturally appropriate food supply. The underlying assumption is that the means to increase food supplies in many countries exist but are not realized due to a number of constraints. During the identification and resolution of these constraints, we must find ways to improve in a sustainable manner and reduce the variability from year to year in food production and pave the way for greater access to food.

The causes of food insecurity involves a complex interaction of economic, social, political and technical. The problem for some communities, it can produce enough food. For others, lack of money to buy a bigger choice of food is the problem. Food insecurity and poverty are strongly correlated. The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA), defines poverty as a deficit of three levels: the lack of safety, capacity and opportunities. Poverty is the main cause of food insecurity and food insecurity, hunger and malnutrition to prevent people from acquiring skills and reduce their productivity. The delay of agricultural productivity is closely associated with rural poverty and hunger. Food insecurity is still a reality for vulnerable people in all societies and in all countries, developed and developing countries.

In developed countries, the problem of food security is often a reflection of the affordability and accessibility, through traditional channels. The food security of rural poor in developing countries is to produce or obtain enough food to feed his family and able to maintain this level of production year after year ..

Challenges for Food Safety According to one estimate, in developing countries, some 800 million undernourished people, including a large proportion living on less than $ 1 a day, despite a drop of over 50% of product prices food world in recent years. world food production has exploded, making a variety of food available to all consumers. Despite the drop in food prices in developed countries has benefited the poor who spend a considerable part of their income on food, this trend has not had much impact on most developing countries, with the 'darker paint SSA' s image.

In addition, agricultural production has stagnated for a considerable period of time or just managed to achieve a significant growth. E 'in this context that the search for solutions to declining crop yields requires an effort that improves the heritage upon which agriculture, in particular, soil, water and biodiversity. Transform farmers in farming systems by introducing new technologies, including tools and techniques of biotechnology processes that integrate agro-ecological food production, minimizing negative effects on the environment, is essential for sustainable agriculture. In addition, increasing the crops must be met to use the technology locally at low cost and minimal inputs without causing environmental damage.

E 'in this context that biotechnology can only come from a rescue deal with international food. Introduction of genetically modified high-performance, fire techniques such as gene transfer, tissue culture, etc. are intended to help scientists achieve results with minimal social and economic costs.