Thursday, 17 February 2011

Application of Biotechnology to Livestock

In terms of food production, application of modern biotechnology, animals in two major areas: animal production and human nutrition. Many of the applications will be discussed below in the early stages of research and development and it will take a while before the same can be used for commercial applications.

Fish: Fish is the staple food for many economies and an important source of income. Expected increase in demand for fish suggests that GM fish may be important in developed countries and developing countries. Improved growth of Atlantic salmon with a gene for growth hormone of Chinook salmon is probably the first transgenic animal in the food market. These fish 3-5 times faster than non-GM growth, production and availability of food reduced. At least eight other species of farmed fish have been genetically modified to enhance growth. Other fish, whose growth hormone genes have been introduced experimentally, including carp, rainbow trout, tilapia and catfish. In all cases, the genes of the growth hormone of fish.

The farming of carnivorous fish such as trout and salmon out on capelin and sand overfishing. To resolve this problem, the research is focused on the possibility of modifying the metabolism of these species, to improve the digestion of carbohydrates, to make the transition to a diet more herbal.

The lack of cold tolerance in warm-water species such as carp and tilapia can lead to significant stock losses in the winter season. Research efforts include attempts carried out in the field, the molecular conformation change of the lipids, increases membrane fluidity. To expand the geographical range of fish, one from an antifreeze fish species to other species, which led to the development of the required characteristic. Although strains resistant to freezing of Atlantic salmon were produced, the level of antifreeze protein secreted by the salmon was too small to significantly affect the freezing point have the blood.

The problems in the identification and assessment of hazards risks that may be associated with the release of genetically modified fish involved are always addressed at different levels. One such aspect is the production of transgenic fish sterile to minimize the environmental risks of releasing them into wild populations and lead to possible contamination of wildlife biology.

Fish farming scene is greatly changed the research efforts are increasingly successful in developing new technologies to increase productivity. This should also lead to excellent application development and developed countries. On the one hand, research in the field should devote serious revenue lead for several coastal states and fishing also an opportunity for the developed countries in research to improve quality for different purposes.