Friday, 18 February 2011

Green Plant Biotechnology

Green biotechnology is more commonly known as plant biotechnology is a growing field within modern biotechnology. This is essentially the introduction of foreign genes in plant species of economic importance, resulting in crop improvement and production of new products in factories. Use environmental friendly and effective alternatives to industrial chemicals such as biofuels, organic fertilizers and organic pesticides is not only result in increased agricultural production, improve standards of health and safety, these new products are driving less pollution to the environment and the use of green technologies. The increasing demand for agricultural products, has given new impetus to research in the field and has brought great benefits to farmers and consumers.

Today, plant biotechnology, which includes the following areas of research and application:

Plant tissue culture:
A technique that allows whole plants to be produced from small amounts of plant parts like roots, leaves or stems, or even just a single cell plant under laboratory conditions. An advantage of tissue culture is the rapid production of healthy planting materials. Examples of products of tissue culture in Kenya include bananas, cassava, Irish potatoes, pyrethrum and citrus.

Plant genetic engineering:
The selective transfer of genes voluntary benefits (s) from one organism to another to create new and better plants, animals or materials. Examples of GM crops are cotton, corn, sweet potato, soybean, etc.

Breeding assisted by molecular markers:
A technique that uses molecular markers to select a character of particular interest such as yield. A molecular marker is a short sequence of DNA are closely related to the desirability (in disease resistance) and for his presence at last choose option of preference. For example, corn that is tolerant to drought and maize streak virus.

Bio fertilizers and bio pesticides:
More and more farmers use organic fertilizers and bio pesticides to reap more benefits and to avoid chemical pesticides and pollutants have harmful effects on crops. According to conservative estimates in India, 10 percent savings through the use of organic fertilizers will result in an annual saving of 1.094 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer, which costs about Rs 550 crore.

Increasingly specialists from the plant to exploit this feature to improve performance "hybrid" in factories. hybrid vigor, or hetrosis because it is scientifically known, exploits the fact that some children from the progeny of a cross between two parents noted that their parents would be better. Many hybrid varieties of various crops are grown throughout the world today. An example of this is that the hybrid tomatoes that we eat commonly.