Friday, 18 February 2011

Plant Bio Genetic Engineering

The selective, the voluntary transfer of beneficial genes from one organism to another to create new and better plants, animals or materials. Examples of GM crops are cotton, corn, sweet potatoes, soybeans, etc. transgenic plants and seeds are created by the process of genetic engineering, which allows scientists to move genetic material between organisms in order to modify these characteristics. All organisms, including plants consist of cells that contain the DNA molecule. DNA molecules in units of genetic information from genes. Every organism has a genetic code made up of DNA that determines the functions of its cells and the characteristics that make it unique.

Before genetic engineering, germplasm exchange was possible only between individual organisms of the same species. With the advent of genetic engineering in 1972, scientists were able to identify specific genes associated with desirable traits in an organism and the transfer of genes across species boundaries in another organism. For example, a gene from bacteria, viruses or animals can be moved into the production of genetically modified plants with altered characteristics. Thus, this method allows the mixing of genetic material between species that otherwise would not breed naturally. After decades of research, specialists of the plant were able to apply their knowledge of genetic engineering to improve the various cultures such as corn, potatoes and cotton.

Rapid advances in biotechnology have opened new market opportunities for scientists and companies to explore the possibilities of using technology in agriculture. Today, even in developing countries, land is increasingly cultivated variety of a growing number of GM crops. Research efforts are under way to genetically modify most of the plants with high economic value, such as cereals, fruits, vegetables, floriculture and vegetable crops.

Application of genetic engineering in plants has the following advantages for humanity:

• Development of plants resistant to pests and diseases.

• Increase the shelf life of fruits and vegetables.

• To produce plants with healthy fats and oils that have increased nutritional value, improved lifestyle.

• The production of soybeans with higher protein expression of cancer that is found naturally in soybeans.

• Increase the yield per hectare resulting in increased productivity.