Friday, 18 February 2011

Plant Tissue Culture Biotechnology

The growing demand for energy for the mass propagation of trees has led to the development of the technique is known as plant tissue culture. It allows whole plants to be produced from small amounts of plant parts like roots, leaves or stems, or even just a single cell plant under laboratory conditions.

The father of plant tissue culture is the French botanist George Morel, who discovered the technique in 1965 while trying to get a plant virus-free orchids. Subsequently, the commercial use of the technology began in 1970 in developed countries. Early on, the concept was limited to a laboratory and an academic interest and, at best, was previously used for the cultivation of ornamental plants and flowers for export. But in most developing countries, the lack of biomass and energy needs increasingly felt the need to explore the possibility of mass distribution of trees through tissue culture.

Tissue culture methods or mass cloning of elite tree species is done to increase the productivity of the land. Are modified or adapted to the change of scale and increase efficiency and productivity. The concept has great importance for many developing countries like India where agriculture remains the predominant activity, requiring the adoption of new technologies to increase production.

In general, the species are selected for tissue culture based on the following considerations:

• Plant species that have problems of regeneration, mainly because of poor quality (such as bananas, Irish potatoes and bamboo). In these cases, the seeds collected from higher plants are used for the opening of crops and increase production.

• species where the plants of any one sex in particular is of commercial importance, such as equipment for papaya male and female plants of asparagus. In these cases, culture is launched with seed specific plants with commercial value. In tissue culture cells, tissues and organs of a plant are separated. These cells are grown in separate individual with a nutrient medium under controlled conditions of temperature and light. The plant requires a growing source of energy from sugar, salt, some vitamins, amino acids, etc., which are provided in the nutrient medium. From these elements of culture, an embryo can develop, which then develops into an entirely new plant.

Seedlings were photosynthetic efficiency and lack of appropriate mechanism to control water loss. They should be hardened gradually by moving them along a gradient of humidity in the greenhouse. Once these plants are in the areas of research are evaluated in the field. Many plant tissue culture that has developed over the trees are very consistent and show an increased production of biomass crops bred conventionally.

Tissue culture is used for the rapid vegetative propagation of plant material that is also known as micropropagation and the production of plants resistant to disease and pest free.